Insecticides are chemicals that are used to control, kill, or injure insects. Pesticides have the potential to have a large impact on ecosystems; many are hazardous to humans and/or animals, and some concentrate as they move up the food chain. Insecticides occur in chemical and biological forms and are used in agriculture, medicine, industry, horticulture, forestry, gardens, households, and offices. The binding sites and adducts of insecticides, as well as their residues and metabolites, can be used to create biomarkers of exposure and effects. Insecticides are available in a number of forms, such as wettable powders, soluble concentrates, suspendable concentrates, emulsifiable concentrates, wettable dry granules, and soluble powders.
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Pesticides are sprayed or dusted mostly on plants and other surfaces that insects move through or ingest. Chemicals used to destroy insects are known as insecticides. Insecticides are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, agriculture, and industry. They have the ability to significantly change ecosystem components and are hazardous to both animals and humans. As insects move across the food chain, some pesticides become more concentrated. Insecticides are substances that have the ability to kill insects. Insecticides are made up of two words: “insect” and “cide,” with cide meaning “to kill. Pesticides are classified according to their entry mechanism, mode of action, chemical composition, and other characteristics.
What is Resistance?
The term insecticide resistance refers to a heritable change in a pest’s sensitivity manifested by repeated failures to control the pest. As directed on the label, it is used to achieve the desired level of control of the pest species. Insecticides overused or misapplied against a pest species can result in the development of resistant pest forms and populations resistant to the insecticide .top 10 agrochemical companies in india
Classification of Insecticide
Because insecticides are such an important aspect of the chemical management of pests in agriculture, it’s crucial to understand their classification. Insecticides are classed in a variety of ways based on their source, mechanism of the entrance, mode of action, the chemical composition of the toxicant, and other factors.
- Chemical composition: Its chemical composition determines whether it is organic or inorganic.
- Modes of action: Physical poisons, nerve poisons, respiratory poisons, protoplasmic poisons, general poisons, and chitin inhibitors all have different modes of action.
- Mode of entry: Based on the mechanism of entry of the insects, they are classified as contact poisons, fumigants (inhalation) poisons, and stomach poisons (ingestion) poisons. Insects having biting or chewing mouth parts, such as caterpillars, beetles, and grasshoppers, respond well to stomach poisons. Systemic poisons, for example, and Paris green (copper acetoarsenate).
- Specificity: They are classed as ovicides, pupicides, larvicides, and adulticides based on the stage of specificity.
- Toxicity: Extremely poisonous, Moderately dangerous, Highly toxic, and Less toxic are the four classifications depending on their toxicity.
- Generations:They are classed as first, second, and fourth generations are based on generations.
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Types of Insecticides based on chemical composition
- Inorganic insecticides: Inorganic insecticides are made up of mineral-based chemicals and Sulphur. As insecticides, this group comprises arsenate and fluorine compounds. Sulphur, for example, is used as an acaricide while zinc phosphide is used as a rodenticide.
- Organic Insecticides: These are insecticides that come from animals. Nereistoxin, a toxin isolated from marine annelids, and fish oil rosin soap, for example. Organochlorines, Organophosphorous, Carbamate insecticides, Hydrocarbon oils, and other synthetic organic insecticides
Types of Insecticides based on the mode of entry
- Systemic: Systemic insecticides are chemicals that can move through the vascular systems of plants and poison insects that feed on them, regardless of where they are applied. The insecticide travels to the outside portions of the plant after entering the roots, such as leaves, fruits, twigs, and branches. Methyl demeton, Phosphamidon, and Acephate are examples.
- Ingested: Rats and roaches are instances of insecticides that have been swallowed.
- Contact: Its main aim is to kill insects when used on a single target. Because they must strike the insect directly, most domestic insect sprays work like contact insecticides. These pesticides can enter the insect’s body through the spiracles and trachea, as well as through the cuticle itself. As a result, these toxins can kill insects just by coming into contact with their bodies. DDT and HCH, for example. Insecticides applied to the leaves and other portions of plants, when swallowed, operate on the insect’s digestive system, killing it. Calcium arsenate, for example, or lead arsenate.
- Fumigants: At normal temperatures, a fumigant is a chemical substance that is both volatile and hazardous to insects. Fumigation is the process of exposing infested material to noxious fumes or vapours of chemicals or gases with insecticidal properties. The term “fumigant chamber” or “fumigatorium” refers to the fumigant chemical and a tightly sealed container or room. Mostly through spiracles in the trachea, fumigants enter the insect’s body. The most regularly used fumigants are aluminium phosphide, Ethylene Dichloride Carbon Tetrachloride and Dibromated ethylene (EDB).
- Non-systemic insecticides: Non-systemic insecticides are those that do not have systemic activity. Trans laminar insecticides are what they’re termed. Malathion, Diazinon, Spinosad, and other pesticides are examples. It should have a strong pesticidal activity intrinsically. The toxicant or its metabolites must be stable for a long enough time to have a residual effect. LARVICIDES
Types of Insecticides based on generations:
- First-generation: Inorganics and Botanicals
- Second generation: Recent chemicals for reproductive control, IGRs like MH & JH mimics.
- Fourth generation: Synthetic pyrethroids.
- Fifth-generation: Alfamethrin,Fenpropathrin ,Bifenthrin ,Fluvalinate,Ethofenpron , and Neonecotinoids.
Types of Insecticides based on different modes of action
- Physical poisons: They kill insects by causing physical harm to them. For example, heavy oils, tar oils, and other substances that induce death through asphyxiation.
- Protoplasmic poisons: Protoplasmic poisons are toxicants that cause protein precipitation, particularly the destruction of cellular protoplasm in the midgut epithelium. Arsenical compounds, for example.
- Nerve poisons: Chemicals that impede cellular respiration, such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxide, and others, are known as respiratory poisons. Chemicals that impede Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and affect the nervous system are known as nerve poisons. Organophosphorous and carbamates, for example.
- Chitin inhibitors: Chitin inhibitors impair normal moulting and development by interfering with the chitin manufacturing process. Novaluron, Diflubenzuran, Lufenuron, and Buprofezin are some examples.
- General Poisons: These are compounds that cause neurotoxic symptoms after a length of time. And do not fit into any of the other categories. Chlordane, toxaphene, and aldrin, for example.
Types of Insecticides based on Toxicity
- Extremely poisonous – colour: crimson, symbol: skull and poison,
- Moderately hazardous – blue tint, caution sign, oral method of delivery
- Highly toxic—yellow colour, poison symbol
- Less toxic—green colour, caution symbol
Disadvantages of Insecticides
- Non-target organisms: Insecticides can kill organisms other than those targeted, posing a risk to people. Insecticides also harm aquatic creatures when they interact with water sources through leaching, drift, or runoff. Birds perish when they drink contaminated water and ingest infected insects. Some pesticides, such as DDT, have been prohibited in the United States because they harm predatory birds’ reproductive capacities.
- Resistance: Insects develop resistance to pesticides after being exposed to them repeatedly until they have little or no impact. Insect reproduction is so fast that a new generation emerges every three to four weeks. As a result, resistance rises quickly.
Methods of usage
- Integrated Pest Management (IPM) can drastically reduce the amount of insecticide required to control a wide range of insect problems.
- Using multiple pesticide products in the same site can increase or decrease their effectiveness, as well as pose a larger risk to human health and the environment.
- Other pesticides with a broad spectrum of activity are effective against all insects. Other pesticides are directed towards specific insects, reducing the possibility of harming beneficial or non-target insects.
- Insect growth regulators such as pyriproxyfen and methoprene do not kill insects; instead,they prevent them from moulting (growing) or laying eggs appropriately.
- Instead of spraying wide areas for social insects like ants, insecticidal baits might be employed. This will lower the chance of exposure while also keeping the bait out of reach of youngsters and pets.
- Not only would early diagnosis of pesticide exposure assist to avoid further exposure, but it will also allow for timely treatment.
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