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Contents

Introduction

A pesticide is a substance (or a mixture of compounds) that kills agricultural pests while also preventing their reproduction. The term “pesticide” refers to poisonous substances that are distributed in the pest’s surroundings in various ways and forms. Pesticides are classed in a variety of ways, with some being classified according to the pest being targeted. Such as a fungicide, insecticide, or spider pesticide. They can also be classed according to the pesticide’s final form. Such as liquid, emulsion, concentrated, or wettable. Another criterion for classification is toxicity, with pesticides being classed as highly, moderately, or slightly hazardous. As well as systemic pesticides and contact-transmitted pesticides based on their method of action. Pesticides, in reality, are substances that contribute to a shift in the environmental balance. It will pose major hazards to both nature and humanity, confirming the need to avoid them.

Farmers’ lack of information regarding the risks of pesticides to individuals and the environment. It has been observed that farmers’ addiction to pesticides has resulted in a slew of environmental issues. The pesticide used persists in the body for up to one day following treatment, which could contribute to an increase in colon and stomach cancer rates. Due to the intake of pesticide-contaminated food. Our blog focuses on the concentrations of copper and lead which are regarded as heavy elements in pesticides. They exist in diverse ecosystems at low levels. But as a result of the entrance of various industrial and agricultural wastes. The quality of the environment is deteriorating and living organisms are being harmed. Heavy metals (copper, Cu, and lead, Pb) were measured in four different pesticides that were chosen at random from markets.

Testing of Pesticides

Pesticides were randomly selected from commercial markets. Because of its great precision in the diagnosis of heavy metals. The atomic absorption apparatus (AA-700 Atomic Absorption Shimadzu) was used to quantify the copper and lead in the samples. The pesticides were directly digested in the furnace using the “graphite tube” method. Pesticides for which heavy metals are estimated. Four pesticide brands were investigated, including two insecticides, Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% and Zoro Super, and two fungicides, Goldtanol 50% SL and Folicur.

Lambada Cyhalothrin: Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% ECAn insecticide that works by skin contact and through the digestive system and has an active effect on insects that attack fruit leaves and soil surface.

Zoro Super: It is an efficient insect and spider repellent that is used to treat vegetables, broad plantations, fruit trees, and decorative plants. It is a concentrated emulsion with the active component Abamectin, which has a concentration of 36 g/L.1.3.

Goldtanol 50% SLA: It is a soluble liquid fungal and bacterial pesticide that is used to treat the soil.

Folicur: Folicur is a systemic fungicide that is emulsified in water and is used to control fungal diseases in wheat and other crops such as vegetables.

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Sources of Heavy Metals

Natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals were classified into two groups by scientists. Sedimentary rocks, volcanic eruptions, soil formation, and rock weathering are examples of natural sources. While industry, agriculture, mining, and domestic effluents are examples of anthropogenic sources.

Anthropogenic Sources of Heavy Metals

Fertilizers, insecticides, and sewage sludge are the most prevalent agricultural sources of heavy metals. The type of poisonous heavy metals and how they accumulate, whether in soil or plants, vary. Heavy Metals Accumulation in Agricultural Soil and Plants as a Result of Fertilizers. Fertilizers provide a variety of essential nutrients to boost plant growth and productivity while also increasing soil organic matter. Phosphorus is commonly utilised in fertiliser production, but it also contributes to heavy metal accumulation in the soil through its application. Phosphate rocks, which play a key role in the immobilization of metals in the soil through precipitation as metal phosphates, have been discovered to be produced by water-insoluble phosphorus fertilisers. Excessive fertiliser use over time causes heavy metal deposition in agricultural soils, which affects soil fertility and, as a result, plant growth and productivity.

The recovery of the soil ecosystem following heavy metal contamination is highly difficult. Because of the long-term usage of fertilisers, Cu, Zn, and Cd have a higher accumulation potential in agricultural soil. The primary types of inorganic fertilisers that contribute to the release of heavy metals in agricultural soil and are then taken up by plants include phosphate fertilisers, liming materials, and bio-fertilizers. As a result, they infiltrate the food chain and eventually reach animals and people.

Concentration of heavy metals lead and copper in Samples of pesticides

The presence of copper and lead in all pesticides employed in this study. With the greatest lead element value (5.621 Mg. l1) in the Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC insecticide. And the lowest in the fungicide Folicure (0.147 Mg. l1). The fungicide Goldtanol 50% SL (28.323 Mg. l1) had the highest copper content. While the insecticide Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC (5.995 Mg. l1) had the lowest. All of the insecticides examined included copper and lead, according to the findings. Lead, as well as chemical pesticide residues, have been identified as major contributors to contamination in the environment. Insecticides and heavy metal compounds such as lead and copper are dispersed in the aquatic environment. These are also deemed dangerous environmental contaminants, according to the findings.

The pesticide Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC is a pyrotechnic insecticide that is well-known and widely utilized. This type of insecticide has a Cyanide atom in its chemical structure (a-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl 3-(2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-eny1)-2, 2dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate). There is currently no specialist chemical that works against the harmful antagonism of pyrethroid pesticides, although sedative drugs that relax muscles and lessen spasm levels can be employed.

Human Environmental Activities

According to reports, human environmental activities such as pesticides and chemical fertilisers are responsible for the majority of heavy metal pollution. A prior study on the impact of heavy metals in the River region found that car exhaust, generator exhaust, and waste materials are all sources of lead pollution that harm people’s health, particularly children. Lead is dispersed throughout the body, reaching the brain, liver, and kidneys, and is deposited in teeth and bones over time. At this time, there is no known safe level of lead exposure. However, based on the findings of this study, chemical pesticides should be considered as the primary source of heavy metals.

Fungicides given to seeds or soil are claimed to be carried from the roots to the leaves, whilst those sprayed on the leaves are reported to be transferred to the inside of the plant. This cycle shows that when using fungicides, vigilance is essential. Since, in addition to the increased harm that may occur as a result of the pesticide’s chemical constituents. Heavy metals included in these pesticides accumulate, increasing the danger and repercussions of their continuous usage. Lead and copper are hazardous metals that can be transferred from a plant to the body of a consumer (human or animal) via the food chain.

Harmful Effect of Metals

Lead is hazardous because of its cumulative effect, which causes physiological problems such as mental retardation and the loss of vital processes. The ability of plants to absorb heavy metals varies from one class to the next and from one kind to the next. The transport of elements from the soil to the root, the capacity of elements to transit through the cells of the root epidermis.The transfer of elements from the epidermal cells to the xylem tissue are all factors that influence element absorption. These metals are subsequently transmitted to the leaves, which are responsible for photosynthesis and food production for the entire plant. Finally, these elements are transmitted from the leaves to the storage tissues such as seeds, roots, and buds.

Conclusion

Because of the difficulties of removing hazardous metals such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead from environmental resources. The method in which copper pesticides were monitored allowed for a good assessment of their environmental contaminating effect. Humans and other living organisms may be harmed by higher concentrations of these hazardous materials.Fungicides are a type of pesticide that is used to prevent crop degradation caused by fungus. There are roughly 20 to 25 different types of fungicides.Pesticides are used to treat vegetables.And pesticides containing heavy metals are one of the sources of heavy metal contamination in vegetables. Copper pesticides come in a variety of forms. Copper compounds are utilised as fungicides and insecticides at a high cost.

The assessment of heavy metals (copper, Cu, and lead, Pb) in four types of pesticides that were randomly picked from marketplaces. Insecticides (Lambada Cyhalothrin 5 percent EC and Zoro Super) and fungicides (Folicur and Goldtanol 50 percent SL) were both evaluated. The insecticide Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC (5.621 Mg. l1) had the greatest lead concentration, while the fungicide Folicur (0.147 Mg. l1) had the lowest. The maximum copper content was reported in the fungicide Goldtanol 50% SL (28.323 Mg. l1). Whereas the pesticide Lambada Cyhalothrin 5% EC (5.995 Mg. l1) had a much lower value.

Related blog: PESTICIDES ARE THE SAVIOR OF CROPS