Culturing is a measure in which the dirt is ready for farming use by machines and by hands or animal force. Machines are in use in today’s world as a modern way of tillage. Also for doing things like tunneling, mixing, disturbing is done by it. While in antiquated time the cycle was finished by hands by ranchers utilizing hand apparatuses like scooping, picking, digging, mattock work, and so on. After that humans started using animal power for plowing, rototilling, harrowing, and other process.

Tillage has now become much more advanced, developed, and modern than the primary method for cultivation. The ancient method was much more time-consuming, labor work and didn’t even leave the land good for a seedbed.

The primary method of tillage loosens the soil and mixes the fertilizers or even plant materials in the soil which results in making the texture of soil rough and hard. Whereas, the secondary method of tillage makes the soil smooth, fine and even gives shapes to the land makes rows and prepare the seedbed. It also helps in controlling weeds throughout the period of growth of crop plants. Tillage helps in controlling the weed to an extent with the help of cultivators or hoes. It disturbs the uppermost layer of the plant a little but with minimal disturbance it tillage kills the weed.

There are 2 ways of practicing tillage:

  1. Uprooting them
  2. burying their leaves i.e. cutting off their photosynthesis

Or even by combining both of the methods. This strategy helps in controlling weed and weed control prevents the plant structure being harmed by weeds and wrecking the collect.

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HISTORY OF TILLAGE

India is a land for agriculture. For decades we have been cultivating our land to produce crops and feed the nation. Tillage is the process of cultivating the land for productive use such as growing crops. Tillage is being in practice because there is a need to clear the clean soil of plants and animals for the use of agriculture. In ancient times human labor was helping in this process.  For like thousands of years we have used wooden plough for agriculture production and till now in some districts we still see our farmers using it for cultivation. Humans themselves and with the help of their animals like buffalos, mule, elephants or cows used to tillage so that they can grow crops.

The anomaly in the dirt leads on account of traffic on soil, reaping or environmental impacts. To have a record soil for the climate and the seedbed for the cultivating of the harvests is the mail plan why culturing was presented. In around 1900 the work vehicles for cultivating was acquainted with the world which at last with time and innovation people have created a method for development with less human force and creature misuse. Also, presently we have hardware which are utilized for development absent a lot of any difficult work, work, and creature misuse.

TYEPS OF TILLAGE

1. Primary and secondary Tillage:

It is conducted after the last harvest usually when the soil is wet or dry depending upon the type and requirement of soil so that it allows plowing. The main agenda of primary tillage is to go to a certain depth of soil kill weeds, incorporate crop residues. Whereas the secondary tillage helps in incorporate fertilizers, make the soil finer, smoother, level up the surface.

2. Reduced Tillage:

It leaves around 20-30% of crop residue cover on the soil. It may involve chisel plow, field cultivators or implements as well.

3. Intensive Tillage:

It leaves about 15% or less% of residue cover. They are regularly alluded to as ordinary culturing yet as conservational culturing is utilized more than escalated culturing it isn’t fitting to allude this sort of culturing to traditional culturing. They include multiple operations such as moldboard, disk etc.

4. Conservation Tillage:

The conservation tillage leaves around about 30% of crop residue on the soil. This process slows down the water movement which leads to a reduction in the amount of soil erosion. They are also beneficial in pest control. It additionally helps ranchers by decreasing fuel utilization and soil compaction as the work vehicles are not gone on the land a ton commonly. They are significantly utilized in South America, Oceania, and North America.

5. Zone Tillage:

It is a form of modern tillage in which only narrow strips are tilled leaving the soil in btw the rows. This helps in solving soil compaction problems and improves internal soil drainage.

When zone tillage is combined with cover crops helps in replacing lost organic matter, improve soil drainage procedure leading an increase in soil water and nutrients.

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PRODUCTS REQUIRED FOR TILLAGE

Crawler tractors with heavy-duty ploughs and dozers,

High horsepower tractors with dozing and hoeing attachment,

Scrapers,

Ditchers,

Chisel ploughs,

Subsoilers,

Terracers,

Levelers etc.

EFFECTS OF TILLAGE

Positive Effects:

  1.  Loose and level up the top layer of the soil.
  2. Helps the organic matter, nutrients, residue mix up in the soil.
  3. Destroy the weeds mechanically
  4. Helps in drying of soil before the seeds are planted in the climate where the water are more than require.

Negative Effects:

  1. It also changes the texture of the soil into dry in the areas where there they are not required hence creates a problem for seeding.
  2.  Soil tends to lose its nutrients, nitrogen, fertilizers and the ability to store all these essential items.
  3. As water absorption becomes slow the soil decreases its water infiltration rate.
  4. Reduces organic matter in the soil.
  5. Destroy the soil aggregates.
  6. Reduces microbes, earthworms, ants etc.
  7. Crop diseases can occur in surface residues.

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ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF TILLAGE

 Modern agriculture reduced the use of tillage. Crops even grow well for n number of years without the use of tillage by using herbicides to control weed, equipment that can plant seeds or fumigate the soil without digging in it. All these kinds of practices to grow crops are called no-till farming. It reduces the cost of farming and helps the environment by reducing soil erosion and diesel fuel usage.

CULTIVATORS

Cultivators are being in use for completing of the work on the land for the improvement and development of land and the crops. They are in usage for setting up the seedbed for arranging the yield seeds with the gear’s they are additionally used to control weed and spreading of weed while not giving a lot of damage to the harvest of the seed set in the dirt.

IMPORTANCE OF CULTIVATORS

  1.   To plant the seed in the soil.
  2. Used for blending the soli finer.
  3. An important instrument for weed control.
  4. Easy to use and understand.
  5. Time, money saver and labor saver.
  6. Ideal for adding manure

TYPES OF CULTIVATORS

Cultivators are further divided by their power. Basically, cultivators can be separated into Tractor Drawn and Animal Drawn.

1. Tractor Drawn-

This is further divided into 2 parts. they are:

a. Trailed Type:

It also has a frame that is being in use to carries more than 1 cross member to which the tines are attached in the end.

At the front end of cultivator, there is a hitch arrangement for hitching.

A pair of wheels is being attached to the cultivator for doing operations simultaneously.

b. Mounted Type:

The tractor is are having a hydraulic system in the end. .

On 3 point hydraulic linkage of tractor an iron frame of rectangular shape is also there.

The cross member carry the tines in 2 lines.             

2. Animal Drawn Duck Foot Cultivators-

This cultivator does not bend and is a strong cultivator. The parts of the cultivator are use in the shallow wrinkling of the weed control or for keeping up with the dampness in the dirt. The creature drew duck foot cultivator comprises of the steel layout and unbending prongs. For delivering purposes we make this kind of products. his kind of excellent steel is made for the delivering purposes only. The cultivator is around 225cm long, 60 cm wide, and has 7 extensions.

3. Tine Cultivators-

It is a cultivator which has prongs with scoops fitted in this. .

4. Dis Cultivator-

A cultivator in which the plates are also there.

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LIMITATIONS OF CULTIVATORS

  1. Uses same power for all the kind of soil be it hard or loose.
  2. It is not efficient for huge land for farming.
  3. The cultivators operates with an external power.
  4. They are of no use before the furrowing of the land.

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